TBI – Survivors, Caregivers, Family, and Friends

Posts tagged ‘SPEAK OUT!’

Read All About It! . . . . . . . Prisoners without Bars: A Caregiver’s Tale

Read All About It!

Prisoners without Bars: A Caregiver’s Tale

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski – author

Donna & David with ARC of Prisoners without Bars: A Caregiver’s Tale

My memoir, Prisoners without Bars: A Caregiver’s Tale, is not only a story of David’s and my struggles after his traumatic brain injury, but it is also a love story. Though my memoir addresses a dire topic, it is peppered with comedic situations. They say laughter is the best medicine, and again, they are right.

Prisoners without Bars is a heart-wrenching memoir that will make you laugh, cry, and G-A-S-P. I promise!

Boy Laughing

Girl Crying girl-crying-clipart-34

Girl Gasping 2

It’s not a beach read, but it reads like one. It’s fast! It’s easy! It’s fascineasy. I mean fascinating.

What Readers are Saying!

Jackie said – “A beautiful and touching story.”

Anonymous Amazon Customer said – “I loved this book. almost couldn’t put it down.

jlgwriter said – “I found the story powerful and compelling.

Todd & Kim said – “This is such an inspirational story of survival! The book is a very easy read and informative as well as inspiring!!”

Judy said – “Donna O’Donnell Figurski tells her story of grace, love, frustration, anger, disappointment, strength, joy, and above all hope.”

Marge said – “I read it in one fell swoop… I guess the word that would describe your book, your life, and who you are is SUPERCALIFRAGILISTICEXPIALIDOCIOIUS.”

Anonymous said – “This book pulled me in immediately and didn’t let me go until the end! ”

Helen said – “Could not put this book down. Written for easy reading. It was like having a conversation with a friend.” “I finished it in one day with some teary moments along with some chuckles. A must read!!”

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51R7Mht63EL._SX332_BO1,204,203,200_

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Stay Safe and Healthy!

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(Photos compliments of contributor.)

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Survivors SPEAK OUT! . . . . . . . Bill Gasiamis Stroke Survivor & Podcaster

Survivors SPEAK OUT!     Bill Gasiamis

Stroke Survivor & Podcaster

by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

Bill Gasiamis

1. What is your name? (last name optional)

Bill Gasiamis

2. Where do you live? (city and/or state and/or country) Email (optional)

Melbourne, Australia

3. On what date did you have your brain injury? At what age?

My stroke happened on February 12, 2012. I was 37.

4. How did your brain injury occur?

It was caused by bleeding of an AVM (arteriovenous malformation).avm-clipart-1

5. When did you (or someone) first realize you had a problem?

It was seven days before I took any action about it.

6. What kind of emergency treatment, if any, did you have?

I was in hospital for seven days. After six weeks at home, my brain bled again (March). It bled again in November 2014, and then I had surgery.

7. Were you in a coma? If so, how long?

No

8. Did you do rehab? What kind of rehab (i.e., inpatient or outpatient and occupational and/or physical and/or speech and/or other)? How long were you in rehab?

I had inpatient rehab for one month and out-patient rehab for six months. I had to learn to use my left side again and learn how to walk.

9. What problems or disabilities, if any, resulted from your brain injury
(e.g., balance, perception, personality, etc.)?

I have numbness on my left side. Fatigue is a problem. I have minor balance issues when I am tired.

10. How has your life changed? Is it better? Is it worse?

Life is better. It’s more complicated because of what happened but my personal growth has been huge.

11. What do you miss the most from your pre-brain-injury life?

I miss playing running-sports, like soccer.R-2

12. What do you enjoy most in your post-brain-injury life?

I have a new appreciation for working on things that are hard and take a long time to complete.

13. What do you like least about your brain injury?

Sometimes, I wish I had more energy.

14. Has anything helped you to accept your brain injury?

I was helped by lots of counselling.

15. Has your injury affected your home life and relationships and, if so, how?

It has, but for the better. By my own standards, I am a better person than I used to be.

16. Has your social life been altered or changed and, if so, how?

No

17. Who is your main caregiver? Do you understand what it takes to be a caregiver?

I don’t have one. (I am my own caregiver.)

03 BILL GASIAMIS mage-1024x998-118. What are your plans? What do you expect/hope to be doing ten years from now?

I intend to continue to interview stroke survivors on my podcast, to speak on stroke-related topics, and to write books on stroke recovery.

19. Are you able to provide a helpful hint that may have taken you a long time to learn, but which you wished you had known earlier? If so, please state what it is to potentially help other survivors with your specific kind of brain injury.

Survivors need to understand that emotional recovery is a very important part of recovery. It is often overlooked. Emotional recovery supports both the physical and mental aspects of a survivor’s recovery.

R20. What advice would you offer to other brain-injury survivors? Do you have any other comments that you would like to add?

Take responsibility for your own recovery, and learn to put your energy into solutions instead of focusing on the problem.

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Survivors SPEAK OUT! Casey Chaffey – Living and Dealing with Chronic Pain

Survivors SPEAK OUT!     Casey Chaffey

Living and Dealing with Chronic Pain

by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

Casey Chaffey 1

1. What is your name? (last name optional)

Casey Chaffey

2. Where do you live? (city and/or state and/or country) Email (optional)

Kentucky, USA     iluvtkj@yahoo.com

3. On what date did you have your brain injury? At what age?

In 1998, at the age of 22, migraines had become a part of my life.

4. How did your brain injury occur?

Besides the severe head-throbbing, the migraines were often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, extreme sensitivity to light and sound, mental confusion, and more. I gave up caffeine (including chocolate), dairy, and gluten to try to reduce as much inflammation as possible. After being passed from doctor to doctor, I was diagnosed with a vestibular imbalance. That did not improve, even with almost a year of physical therapy, and it became the scapegoat for all of my symptoms.

A few years later, the pain changed from an unwelcome visitor to a permanent resident. Even on my migraine-free days, I still had a persistent headache. Dizziness, blurred vision, fatigue, and constant light-sensitivity decided to join the party as well. Fifteen years after my migraines first started, I was spending about five days a week in bed, and prescription medication was required for me to complete simple daily activities. Finally, after trying more than eighteen different prescriptions and seeing ten different doctors, I had a diagnosis. A fairly large cyst had been growing in the middle of my brain and putting pressure on my optic nerve, which is what caused the vision issues.Migraine

When I was 38 years old, a neurosurgeon removed the cyst. Recovery was not easy or quick. I had double vision for more than four weeks. My brain felt exhausted all the time, and I could not look at any screens (TV, phone, or computer). I had a panic attack for the first time in my life. I had to rest a lot. And my hypothalamus was damaged.

However, the moment I woke up from surgery, my constant headache was gone. I no longer felt and heard my pulse in my head. I went from migraines five days a week to six or seven days a month. My dizzy spells rarely show their unwelcome face anymore. I still have limitations and light-sensitivity, and I am always in some level of pain. My blurry vision will occasionally return, and an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in 2019 showed evidence of a small stroke at some point. In spite of that, I am thankful for how far I’ve come.

5. When did you (or someone) first realize you had a problem?

See above.

6. What kind of emergency treatment, if any, did you have?

I’ve had treatments, but I didn’t go to the Emergency Room of a hospital.

There are two types of brain injury. Traumatic brain injury is caused by an external force, like a blow to the head or an object passing through the skull. A non-traumatic brain injury is caused by internal factors, such as a lack of oxygen or pressure from a tumor. I had both a cyst that put pressure on my brain for many years (non-traumatic). Surgical tools that were used to get to the center of my brain to remove the cyst (traumatic).

7. Were you in a coma? If so, how long?

No

8. Did you do rehab? What kind of rehab (i.e., inpatient or outpatient and occupational and/or physical and/or speech and/or other)? How long were you in rehab?

I did not do any clinical rehab. My husband helped me go for walks, even when I didn’t want to. We started by just going to the end of our short driveway and back. We slowly worked our way up to crossing the street and then circling our small cul-de-sac. When we decided to attempt a loop at the park, I eventually made it. As I continued to push through, the distances grew.

When I was one day shy of being three-months post-op, I stood at the starting line of a half marathon in Nashville, Tennessee. I obviously could not run, but it was possible to walk 13.1 miles in the four-hour time limit, so I was going to try. It was one of the most difficult things I have done, but I crossed the finish line just under the wire.narathon

9. What problems or disabilities, if any, resulted from your brain injury
(e.g., balance, perception, personality, etc.)?

Looking at computer and phone screens for extended periods of time increases my migraines. I still have to rest more than healthy people, and my vision will get blurry if I do not rest in time. Socializing exhausts me, and I often spend the next day in bed with a migraine. Since my hypothalamus was compromised during surgery, I experience frequent hot and cold flashes. (The hypothalamus helps regulate the body’s core temperature.) I get overheated and feel like I cannot breathe, but when I take just my socks or sweatshirt off, I can start shivering and feel chilled to the bone within a minute or two. I used to love the heat of summer, but now it makes me sick if I spend much time in it.

10. How has your life changed? Is it better? Is it worse?

My life is immensely better than it was the few years before my surgery. At that point, I wasn’t really living; I was simply existing. I have been able to offer advice and encouragement to others who were going to undergo brain surgery. Without my experiences, I would not have had those opportunities. I also recently published a book called 30 Days to Understanding Chronic Illness and Pain.Casey Chaffey 2

11. What do you miss the most from your pre-brain-injury life?

Besides just feeling healthy, I used to be active and fit. Working out gave me an energy boost and made me feel better, like it is supposed to. Now, I still try to exercise and I love hiking, but those things exhaust me. I often have to nap right afterward, and physical exertion can make my head hurt and feel foggy.

12. What do you enjoy most in your post-brain-injury life?

Besides my brain injury, I have other chronic illnesses. I believe that if I want people to understand, then it is my job to teach them (with patience and kindness). Of course, not everyone is willing to listen; but if I do not at least try, then I am not even giving them the opportunity. Navigating through the limitations and suffering can be discouraging. In addition to the symptoms themselves, the stigmas and misconceptions may seem insurmountable. My goal for my book is for it to be an easy and informal read that covers a wide range of topics, including invisible illnesses, cost, guilt and loneliness, fatigue, brain fog, pacing, prevalence, and more. My hope is that it will help me help healthy people gain a better understanding of what life with chronic illness and pain is really like, while also offering support and encouragement to those who are struggling. 

13. What do you like least about your brain injury?

See above.

14. Has anything helped you to accept your brain injury?

No answer

15. Has your injury affected your home life and relationships and, if so, how?

No answer

16. Has your social life been altered or changed and, if so, how?

See above.

17. Who is your main caregiver? Do you understand what it takes to be a caregiver?

No answer

18. What are your plans? What do you expect/hope to be doing ten years from now?

See above.

19. Are you able to provide a helpful hint that may have taken you a long time to learn, but which you wished you had known earlier? If so, please state what it is to potentially help other survivors with your specific kind of brain injury.

this little girl has something to say

I wish I would not have stayed silent about my struggles for so long. I used to avoid talking about my pain and the journey that I was on. I do not like to complain, and I know that everyone has challenges in life. But as I slowly began to open up, people came out of the shadows. I realized that I was not alone in feeling alone and that others were going through the same or similar things. When we keep our suffering to ourselves, it can steal our entire focus and limit outside interests and distractions. This can lead to feelings of hopelessness, resentment, or loneliness. There is no shame in seeking therapy or other support to help you develop coping skills. While you may not be able to control the pain or limitations themselves, you can take control of how you deal with them. 

20. What advice would you offer to other brain-injury survivors? Do you have any other comments that you would like to add?

Rest is not laziness, and pacing is vital. We live in such a fast-paced world, and there is always so much to do. One of the hardest lessons to learn is to slow down because you cannot do everything that you used to. It is easy to feel guilty, lazy, or left out. It is difficult to leave projects unfinished and to stay home when everyone else is out having fun. But once your body informs you that you are overdoing it, you need to rest and stop comparing yourself to others. When you rest because your body is weak, you are not wasting time doing nothing. You are doing exactly what you need to do. You are recovering.

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Indie Spotlight – Donna O’Donnell Figurski

I am so honored to be featured on Sue Bavey’s website, Sue’s Musings – Indie Spotlight. Sue features authors to take a glimpse into their journey to publication. Each story is different and intriguing. I hope you will find my story interesting and that you will take the time to read my book, PRISONERS WITHOUT BARS: A CAREGIVER’S TALE. I’ve been told it will make you laugh, cry, and G-A-S-P! Please let me know if you did any?

donna o’donnell figurski – author

Prisoners (print) Amazon US Paperback
Prisoners (eBook) Amazon US eBook
Prisoners (audiobook) Amazon Audiobook
Prisoners (print) Barnes and Noble Paperback
Prisoners (eBook) Barnes and Noble eBook
Prisoners (print) IndieBound
Prisoners (eBook) Kobo

Survivors SPEAK OUT! Meghan Beaudry

Survivors SPEAK OUT! Meghan Beaudry

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

Meghan Beaudry – Brain Injury Survivor

     1. What is your name? (last name optional)

     Meghan Beaudry

     2. Where do you live? (city and/or state and/or country) Email (optional)

     Houston, Texas, USA        meghan_wang@yahoo.com

     3. On what date did you have your brain injury? At what age?

     In 2009, I developed lupus, an autoimmune disease, that turned into brain inflammation. I was      twenty-two. Five years later, in 2014, I had another severe brain inflammation flare in which I forgot both how to walk and much of my past.

4. How did your brain injury occur?

Lupus is an autoimmune disease.

5. When did you (or someone) first realize you had a problem?

I first realized something was wrong when I began to struggle in grad school.

6. What kind of emergency treatment, if any, did you have?

A female Doctor.

A female Doctor.

I had a difficult time getting diagnosed, so I did not receive treatment the first year I was sick. I saw seven doctors before I was diagnosed with lupus. 

7. Were you in a coma? If so, how long?

No.

8. Did you do rehab? What kind of rehab (i.e., inpatient or outpatient and occupational and/or physical and/or speech and/or other)? How long were you in rehab?

No.

9. What problems or disabilities, if any, resulted from your brain injury
(e.g., balance, perception, personality, etc.)?

I have some short-term and long-term memory loss. While I don’t have noticeable balance problems, I have a poor sense of balance for someone my age.

10. How has your life changed? Is it better? Is it worse?

My life has changed in many ways since I’ve survived brain inflammation. In some ways, it has improved. I’m more fearless and confident. Because living with brain injury and lupus takes up so much energy, I have little energy for negative thoughts and people who might hold me back

11. What do you miss the most from your pre-brain-injury life?

I miss being able to memorize information quickly and with little effort.

12. What do you enjoy most in your post-brain-injury life?

I never would have started writing if I hadn’t developed a brain injury. It’s been an honor to be able to share my experience so that others with brain injuries can feel less alone.

13. What do you like least about your brain injury?

I dislike the fatigue that comes with lupus, as well as worrying that I will have a memory slip when speaking, presenting, or performing.

14. Has anything helped you to accept your brain injury?

What has helped me let go of my grief is understanding that, while living with brain injury is not a choice, grief is. I’d rather only live with one chronic condition than with two.

15. Has your injury affected your home life and relationships and, if so, how?

It took a while for my family to accept that my abilities and needs were different after my diagnosis. My second episode of brain inflammation led to my divorce because my husband was emotionally unable to handle it.

16. Has your social life been altered or changed and, if so, how?

I’ve been lucky to know friends who understand my limitations, especially because of the fatigue I experience daily. In many ways, brain inflammation has deepened many of my existing friendships.

17. Who is your main caregiver? Do you understand what it takes to be a caregiver?

When I was very sick and bedridden with the second brain inflammation flare, my mother-in-law moved into my house to take care of me. Her selflessness and positive energy were huge factors in my recovery.

18. What are your plans? What do you expect/hope to be doing ten years from now?

I hope to have published a memoir about my experience.

19. Are you able to provide a helpful hint that may have taken you a long time to learn, but which you wished you had known earlier? If so, please state what it is to potentially help other survivors with your specific kind of brain injury.

I use my phone to help me remember everything. There are so many apps to help you keep track of your life.

20. What advice would you offer to other brain-injury survivors? Do you have any other comments that you would like to add?

Always remember that the lowest point in your injury/life is not the point at which you will stay forever.

 

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Caregivers SPEAK OUT: . . . Author, Abby Maslin

Caregivers SPEAK OUT: Author, Abby Maslin

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski – author

Prisoners without Bars: A Caregiver’s Tale

 

Caregiver, Abby Maslin – author of “Love You Hard”

 

 

1. What is your name? (last name optional)

Abby Maslin

2. Where do you live? (city and/or state and/or country) Email? (optional)

Washington, DC, USA

3. What is the brain-injury survivor’s relationship to you? How old was the survivor when he/she had the brain injury? What caused your survivor’s brain injury?

My husband, TC, is the TBI (traumatic brain injury) survivor. He was 29 at the time of the assault that caused his injury.

4. On what date did you begin care for your brain-injury survivor? Were you the main caregiver? Are you now? How old were you when you began care?

I became my husband’s full-time caregiver on August 18, 2012. I had just celebrated my 30th birthday.

5. Were you caring for anyone else at that time (e.g., children, parents, etc.)?

I had a 21-month-old son, named Jack, whom I was also caring for at the time.

6. Were you employed at the time of your survivor’s brain injury? If so, were you able to continue working?

I was employed as a fourth-grade teacher. TC’s injury occurred the weekend before school started. I was not able to return to work for a year.

7. Did you have any help? If so, what kind and for how long?

We had family members who lived nearby and who offered intermittent help. My parents were both ill, however, and unable to help in any large capacity.

8. When did your support of the survivor begin (e.g., immediately – in the hospital; when the survivor returned home; etc.)?

Immediately. It began as I was tasked with advocating for TC’s medical care.

9. Was your survivor in a coma? If so, what did you do during that time?

Yes. TC was in a deep coma for about four days, but he took more than two weeks to fully come out of it.

10. Did your survivor have rehab? If so, what kind of rehab (i.e., inpatient and/or outpatient and occupational, physical, speech, and/or other)? How long was the rehab? Where were you when your survivor was getting therapy?

Yes. TC received all the therapies: speech, occupational, and physical. He received occupational and physical therapies for about one year. He received speech for more than two years.

Love You Hard by Abby Maslin

11. What problems or disabilities of your brain-injury survivor required your care, if any?

TC had severe aphasia (struggles with both expressive and receptive language). He had physical weakness on one side of his body and needed to relearn how to walk. He continues to have limited use of his right hand.

12. How has your life changed since you became a caregiver? Is it better? Is it worse?

It’s really impossible to compare. My life since becoming a caregiver is far more complex and difficult. It’s required a lot of emotional growth and healing to let go of the life I had and the relationship I once shared with my spouse. This new life, however, is far richer in purpose and gratitude than it was before. I have a clearer sense of who I am, what I’m capable of, and how I want to spend my time on earth.

13. What do you miss the most from pre-brain-injury life?

I miss the sense of safety I once felt. I miss the easy conversation my husband and I once shared. (His aphasia makes communication much more effortful.)

14. What do you enjoy most in post-brain-injury life?

I enjoy the sense of gratitude I live with daily. I can identify and reflect on my blessings with clarity. It’s a wonderful thing to appreciate life as it’s happening.

15. What do you like least about brain injury?

The unpredictability. As a caregiver, I find that it’s difficult to align one’s expectations to the recovery of a loved one, as everything is always in flux and changing.

16. Has anything helped you to accept your survivor’s brain injury?

What’s helped me is the recognition that suffering is universal. My family and I were never exempt from life’s challenges and normalizing that experience of hardship has helped me make peace with its existence.

17. Has your survivor’s injury affected your home life and relationships and, if so, how?

Absolutely. While my husband’s personality is mostly unchanged, there are subtle changes that have required us to relearn each other as people. It has shifted the dynamics of responsibility and roles in the household.

18. Has your social life been altered or changed and, if so, how?

Yes, at first. But, we were fortunate to have many friends who stuck out the recovery process with us and with whom we still socialize. We are not as social as before, but we also have two young children these days.

19. What are your plans? What do you expect/hope to be doing ten years from now?

Praying for continued good health. TC has wonderful healthy habits, but we can’t control the aging process. If all goes well, in ten years, we’ll still be working and living at home with a 14-year-old daughter and a 20-year-old son at college!

Caregiver, Abby Maslin – author of “Love You Hard”

20. What advice would you offer other caregivers of brain-injury survivors? Do you have any other comments that you would like to add?

Be forgiving of yourself and your own process of grief. It cannot be rushed. The hand you’ve been dealt is a terribly unfair one, and it is OK to acknowledge the gravity of that fact. Life with brain injury requires persistence, patience, and a lot of hope, but life can be as beautiful and as rich as before.

 

Stay Safe and Healthy!

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Kid Books – Just for Fun – “While We Can’t Hug”

Kid Books – Just for Fun

reviewed by
Donna O’Donnell Figurski


 

“While We Can’t Hug”

written by Eoin McLaughlin
illustrated by Polly Dunbar

My rating 5 of 5 stars

 

While We Can’t Hug” is a sweet book that children will want to hear again and again. Parents, will enjoy reading it over and over, too. I know I would. We all like to hug our family and friends, but what can you do when you can’t hug? Ask Tortoise and Hedgehog.

Donna O’Donnell Figurski
author – Prisoners without Bars: A Caregiver’s Tale

COVID-19: Love in the Time of a Pandemic

COVID-19: Love in the Time of a Pandemic

by

Columbia University Professor Emeritus, Dr. David Figurski

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

(Disclaimer: The World Health Organization <WHO> has officially named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes as COVID-19.  Because the majority of people, including much of the press, commonly refer to the virus as “COVID-19,” to avoid confusion I use COVID-19 as the name of the virus in these posts.)

David H. Figurski, Ph.D & Survivor of Brain Injury

Donna and I recently celebrated 51 years of marriage.  We chose the beautiful desert scenery around the White Tank Mountains near our home in Arizona.  We returned to the place that Donna proposed to me last year as part of our 50th anniversary celebration.

This year, our anniversary celebration was very different.  We are in the middle of a global pandemic of a new coronavirus.  To slow the spread of this highly contagious virus, most people wear masks, practice social-distancing, and self-quarantine.  (For us, except for monthly food pick-up runs, we have been home over 160 days.)

Desert near the White Tank Mountains

The effect of the pandemic has been horrific and devastating for society, most notably for health-care personnel, blue-collar workers, teachers and school administrators, and middle- and lower-class families, who are struggling with paying bills, having enough food, and eviction.

Donna & David Figurski Wedding Anniversary #51

Globally, there have been over 22.5 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, and over 795,000 people have died. The U.S. has over 5.5 million cases and over 175,000 deaths. Scientists and physicians around the world are racing to understand the virus and its disease.  A viable vaccine is months away.

David & Donna Figurski – so happy together

Everyone is trying to cope as best as he or she can. On a personal level, Donna and I are fortunate to deeply love one another and to have each other in the midst of such chaos.

Love is worth celebrating wherever and whenever you can.

Stay Safe and Healthy!

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COVID-19 – It’s Everywhere . . Will an Early Vaccine for COVID-19 Be Safe?


Will an Early Vaccine for COVID-19 Be Safe?

by

Columbia University Professor Emeritus, Dr. David Figurski

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

(Disclaimer: The World Health Organization <WHO> has officially named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes as COVID-19. Because the majority of people, including much of the press, commonly refer to the virus as “COVID-19,” to avoid confusion I use COVID-19 as the name of the virus in these posts.)

 

David Figurski

David H. Figurski, Ph.D & Survivor of Brain Injury

There is intense pressure from this Administration for any good news that might bolster its re-election chances. The government’s own FDA (Food and Drug Administration) might shorten the three required clinical trials that are key to proving the safety and efficacy of any vaccine before it’s approved for use by the public.

There is good reason to be concerned that government officials from this Administration might approve short-cuts to well-established scientific requirements because they want to speed things up. Both the FDA and the CDC (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention), two government agencies I have always trusted, have already bowed to political pressure from this Administration. The FDA approved hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 and later rescinded its approval when the drug was found to be ineffective against COVID-19 and to cause some dangerous side-effects in some people. The CDC, after feeling pressure from the Administration, revamped its back-to-school guidelines.

twiv-300x225

Dr. Vincent Racaniello – Columbia University virologist

Drs. Vincent Racaniello (virologist, Columbia U., host of the TWiV <This Week in Virology> podcasts), Brianne Barker (immunologist, Drew U.), and Rich Condit (retired virologist, Professor Emeritus, U. of Florida) discuss this issue in the TWiV podcast #631 of June 25, 2020. I urge you to listen to minutes 4:00-9:00. These three scientists talk about the importance of impartial and uncorrupted science in driving vaccine development and approval.

Also, an article about this issue can be found in the July 29, 2020, issue of HuffPost.

VaccineA legitimate way for the large Phase III clinical trial to end early is when the benefit is obvious. For example, if a vaccine candidate were given to 20,000 people and a placebo were given to another 20,000 people, the efficacy of the vaccine would be obvious (and statistically sound) if several hundred people in the placebo group became sick, while no person in the vaccine group became sick. Such an obvious result is exceedingly rare, and so, since it normally takes about eight months to do a Phase III clinical trial, if all goes well, we probably won’t have a confidence-inspiring vaccine until 2021.

Stay Safe and Healthy!

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(Photos compliments of contributor.)

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COVID-19 – It’s Everywhere . . . Interview with Dr. Anthony Fauci

Dr. Anthony Fauci – an interview by Drs. Vincent Racaniello and Rich Condit, virologists

by

Columbia University Professor Emeritus, Dr. David Figurski

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

 

(Disclaimer: The World Health Organization <WHO> has officially named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes as COVID-19. Because the majority of people, including much of the press, commonly refer to the virus as “COVID-19,” to avoid confusion I use COVID-19 as the name of the virus in these posts.)

David H. Figurski, Ph.D & Survivor of Brain Injury

If you believe in science and facts, this 36-minute podcast will be a treat and essential listening. It was recorded on July 16, 2020, and posted on July 17. (Note: The link is for the page that has all the TWiV podcasts. Make sure you are listening to #641.)

Dr. Vincent Racaniello, a virologist, was my colleague in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology at Columbia University. He does a podcast on viruses called TWiV (This Week in Virology).

Dr. Vincent Racaniello – Columbia University virologist

Vincent, Rich Condit (a retired virologist from the University of Florida), and Dr. Fauci (Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) discuss COVID-19 and the pandemic. Among the topics discussed are the paths of infection, symptoms, testing, re-opening schools, fatality rate, immunity, and vaccines.

 

 

Normally, the TWiV scientists make their discussion understandable to non-scientists. But, these three scientists were working against a time-constraint, and they sometimes used terms that some of you may not be familiar with. To help you, I’ve made a glossary. The order of the terms in the list is based on the time in the podcast when the term is first used (noted in parentheses).

Dr. Anthony Fauci 071920

Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Dr. Fauci was also interviewed for 64 minutes in 2013 by Vincent and Rich (TWiV #219).

 

Glossary provided by Dr. Figurski for easier listening.

glossary

PCR-able (2:52) – based on the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test, which is a very sensitive test for the RNA chromosome (or a chromosomal RNA fragment) of the virus

fomite (3:11) – an infectious object or material

viral load (4:05) – the number of viruses

cycle threshold (4:27) – the PCR test is based on a number of amplification cycles to see a signal; the number of amplification cycles needed is related to the number viruses present; the higher the number of cycles needed, the lower the number of viruses present

nucleotides (5:05) – the building blocks for the viral RNA; the RNA chromosome of COVID-19 is made up of about 30,000 nucleotides

BSL-3 lab (5:12) – a bio-safety level 3 lab has containment and safety precautions that allow scientists to work with microbes thought to be dangerous

antigen (11:47) – a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies to itself; infection with COVID-19 leads to the body’s production of anti-COVID-19 antibodies; in the COVID-19 test discussed here, viral antigens (probably viral proteins) are used to bind to anti-COVID-19 antibodies to detect them; the presence of anti-COVID-19 antibodies is an indication that a person is now infected with COVID-19 or was infected in the past

systemic infection (13:21) – infection of other organs – not just infection of the lungs

systemic sequelae (13:23) – symptoms of infection in other organs

viremia (13:32) – the presence of virus in the blood; because the blood goes to all organs, a viremia allows the virus to reach other organs and can lead to a systemic infection

endothelium (14:22) – the layer of cells that lines organs and vessels

SARS (15:18) – the first SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) pandemic of 2003 – also caused by a coronavirus

MERS (15:21) – Middle East Respiratory Syndrome – another earlier and limited pandemic caused by a coronavirus

sero-prevalence (16:04) – the fraction of people in a population who are positive for antibodies to COVID-19; antibody positivity is an indication that a person is now infected with COVID-19 or was infected in the past

herd immunity (16:28) – immunity of the population by infection or by a vaccine; when people are infected (and recover if they have symptoms), they become immune; if enough people are immune, “herd immunity” has been achieved without a vaccine; the virus has few people to infect productively, and its spread slows to almost nothing; estimates are that 70-80% of the population must become immune to protect the population

Moderna vaccine (20:55) – the company Moderna teamed up with Dr. Fauci’s group and seems to be having some good success so far in phase I and phase II clinical trials (of three phases, see below); instead of the standard method of using a viral protein or several viral proteins to stimulate the production of neutralizing antibodies (see below), the Moderna vaccine uses a brand new technology based on the mRNA (see below) for the viral protein, a method that has never before been used to produce a vaccine

clinical trials – clinical development of a vaccine is a three-phase process. During Phase I, small groups of people receive the trial vaccine. In Phase II, the clinical study is expanded and the vaccine is given to people who have characteristics (such as age and physical health) similar to those for whom the new vaccine is intended. In Phase III, the vaccine is given to thousands of people and tested for efficacy and safety. (From the CDC)

mRNA (20:57) – messenger RNA; in cells, the genetic code for the production of proteins resides in the chromosomes, which are made of the nucleic acid DNA; that code is read and translated into the proteins (the machines of the cell) by the cell’s protein factories – the ribosomes; because the ribosomes need to get the code from the DNA, the messenger RNA (mRNA) comes into play; (RNA is a nucleic acid very closely related to DNA); a protein-machine copies the DNA’s code into mRNA, which then brings the code to the protein factory, where it is read and the protein is made

neutralizing antibody (21:09) – an antibody that blocks infection by the virus; for COVID-19, an antibody that inactivates the spike protein of the virus (see below) is a neutralizing antibody

convalescent serum (21:17) – serum from the blood of patients who have recovered from COVID-19; the serum contains the antibodies

spike protein (21:51) – a protein of COVID-19; important because it’s needed for the virus to bind tightly to the ACE2 (22:19) (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) protein that’s on the surface of lung cells; the binding is needed for the virus to gain entry to the cell and start the infection; a target for some vaccines; antibodies that inactivate the spike protein are called “neutralizing antibodies”

hemagglutinin, neuraminidase (22:39) – surface proteins of influenza virus needed for infection and for the release of progeny virus, respectively; antibodies to these proteins (usually to hemagglutinin) are the basis of the vaccine for influenza virus

monoclonal antibody (27:29) – the body’s collection of antibodies is produced by a population of B cells; each B cell produces one specific antibody; if a B cell can be cloned and cultured away from the population of B cells, then that culture will produce only that one specific antibody (for example, an anti-spike protein antibody), also called a “monoclonal antibody”

pathogen (28:17) – infectious agent (virus, bacterium, or parasite) that causes disease

NIAID (31:40) – National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); the NIAID is headed by Dr. Fauci

 

Stay Safe and Healthy!

Clip Art compliments of Bing.)

(Photos compliments of contributor.)

As I say after each post:

Please leave a comment by clicking the blue words “Leave a Comment” below this post.

Feel free to follow my blog. Click on “Follow” on the upper right sidebar.anim0014-1_e0-1

If you like my blog, share it intact with your friends. It’s easy! Click the “Share” buttons below.

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