TBI – Survivors, Caregivers, Family, and Friends

Archive for June, 2020

COVID-19 – It’s Everywhere . . . Immune Response, Vaccine Development, & Asymptomatic Infections

New Info for COVID-19: Immune Response, Vaccine Development, & Asymptomatic Infections

by

Columbia University Professor Emeritus, Dr. David Figurski

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

(Disclaimer: The World Health Organization <WHO> has officially named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes as COVID-19. Because the majority of people, including much of the press, commonly refers to the virus as “COVID-19,” to avoid confusion I use COVID-19 as the name of the virus in these posts.)

David H. Figurski, Ph.D & Survivor of Brain Injury

I have taken a 119-minute podcast on COVID-19 by a virologist and reduced it to the 21 minutes you probably want to hear the most. This long post looks scary, but it’s actually very easy to read and makes the 21 minutes readily understandable.

Dr. Vincent Racaniello, a virologist at Columbia University, was my colleague in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology. He does a podcast on viruses, called TWiV (This Week in Virology). Since March 13th, when we started staying home and taking precautions to minimize the pandemic, Vincent has released over 40 podcasts, nearly all of which are about COVID-19.

TWiV is unique because the host, Vincent, does research on and lectures about viruses. In addition to his being a scientist, his podcasts always have a panel of PhDs, sometimes as many as five people (two more virologists, an immunologist, a parasitologist, and a former student – now a science reporter). The discussions are great and done with a non-scientist-audience in mind. TWiV is known worldwide and attracts tens of thousands of listeners every month. However, the TWiV podcasts are long (~1-2.5 hours), so I listen and tell you the minutes to listen to hear information that I think you’ll want to know.

This post is about TWiV #631, which was posted on June 25, 2020. (Note: The TWiV link is for all the podcasts. Be sure you listen to #631.)

TWiV podcast #631 is 119 minutes long, but I have selected ~21 minutes you may want to hear. The topics you’ll hear discussed are the following: the value of the safety precautions, the need for free and extensive testing, the unknowns of the immune response, the timetable for vaccine development (at least eight more months), and the role of age in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections.

I have broken down #631 into segments defined by the minutes I chose for you to listen to. (The last half of the podcast was spent answering questions from listeners. While much good information is in this section, I emphasized the parts you probably want to hear the most.)

Podcast #631 features a discussion by three scientists: Vincent (virologist, professor, Columbia U.), Rich Condit (virologist, Professor Emeritus, U. of Florida), and Brianne Barker (immunologist, professor, Drew U.). The scientists usually make sure their discussion is understandable to their generally non-scientist listeners, but I found that they occasionally used terms that may be unfamiliar to you. Therefore, I have provided a glossary in the segment in which the term is first used.

TWiV #631
Segment 1
Minutes 3:10-9:10
The cavalier attitude of some people to safety precautions; the spike of new cases in the US; the toxic mixture of politics and science; the 172 vaccine projects planned or in progress; how vaccine development – done properly – will take over eight more months

glossary
rotavirus – common RNA virus responsible for diarrhea in young children and infants. Worldwide, the virus is responsible for as many as 400,000 deaths annually. A vaccine was introduced in 2006.
protein subunit-based – Some large proteins are actually complexes of individual proteins or “subunits.” Inactivation of an essential subunit (for example, by a vaccine) inactivates the whole protein complex.
Phase III clinical trial – Clinical development of a vaccine is a three-phase process. During Phase I, small groups of people receive the trial vaccine. In Phase II, the clinical study is expanded and the vaccine is given to people who have characteristics (such as age and physical health) similar to those for whom the new vaccine is intended. In Phase III, the vaccine is given to thousands of people and tested for efficacy and safety. (from the CDC)

Segments 2 and 3
Minutes 17:20-19:05 and 22:25-24:00
Possible importance of T cells in the immune response; the role of antibodies may not be as important as first thought; implications

glossary
antibody – part of the adaptive immune response (see “innate immunity” below), which eventually selects for proteins (antibodies) that specifically bind to foreign (usually) substances (like viral proteins). Binding of an antibody to a substance can cause inactivation of that substance.
serology – the analysis of blood for the presence of antibodies that bind specific substances (in this case, to proteins of COVID-19). A positive serology test for COVID-19 means that you are now infected or have been infected sometime in the past.
T and B cells – The white blood cells are important to the immune response. Several types of white blood cells have been identified. T cells and B cells are two major classes. B cells produce antibodies. Two subtypes of T cells are known to be important for the immune response to COVID-19. One subtype signals B cells to produce antibodies. Another subtype (cytotoxic T cells) kill virus-infected cells. The scientists discuss the evidence that the latter subtype of T cells may be very important to the immune response to COVID-19.
innate immunity – the first line of defense or the non-specific arm of the immune response. The innate immune response is in contrast to the adaptive (specific) immune response, which includes antibody production and takes days to develop.
PI – Principle Investigator; the head of the project
neutralizing antibody – an antibody that blocks infection by the virus; for COVID-19, an antibody that inactivates the spike protein of the virus (see below) is a neutralizing antibody
IgG – Immunoglobulin Gamma; the majority of the long-lived antibodies in the blood
immunopathology – that part of a disease that is caused by the immune response

Segment 4
Minutes 26:25-29:40
Which vaccine will be the best? What should we think of a vaccine based on spike protein only?

glossary
MHC – Major Histocompatibility Complex – several genes that code for a large set of proteins that are on the surface of every cell. T cells monitor what the MHC surface proteins are bound to. Fragments of proteins (see “peptide” below) are bound to MHC proteins and displayed to a T cell by cell-cell contact. If a cytotoxic T cell recognizes the fragment as normal or “self,” it takes no action. If the cytotoxic T cell “sees” a peptide as different or foreign (as in a virus-infected cell), it will kill the cell. This is part of the innate immunity arm. Stimulation of a T helper cell by an MHC protein bound to a foreign peptide will signal the adaptive arm of the immune response, which includes antibody production.
peptide – a small fragment of a protein
antigen – a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies to itself and molecules very similar to itself. COVID-19 vaccine production uses one or more viral antigens to trigger an immune response in the absence of infection by the virus.
spike protein – a protein of COVID-19; important because it’s needed for the virus to bind tightly to the ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) protein that’s on the surface of lung cells; the binding is needed for the virus to gain entry to the cell and start the infection; a target for some vaccines; antibodies that inactivate spike are called “neutralizing antibodies.”
attenuated – An inactivated virus is a virus that’s been killed. An attenuated virus is a live virus that replicates and induces the immune response the natural way, but no longer causes disease. The Salk polio vaccine is based on killed virus. The Sabin vaccine is based on an attenuated polio virus. (Interesting note: Vincent Racaniello sequenced the chromosomes of the normal and Sabin polio viruses and identified three mutations in the Sabin virus.)
Zika virus – a mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. It was later identified in humans. In most cases, there are no symptoms. Most frighteningly, in pregnant women, it may cause subsequent birth defects, including microcephaly (small head due to an undeveloped brain). In early 2015, a widespread epidemic, caused by the Zika virus in Brazil, spread to other parts of South and North America. There’s no vaccine or specific treatment. (from WHO and Wikipedia)

Segments 5, 6, and 7
Minutes 29:55-36:45, 40:45-41:30, and 43:00-43:30
A paper by scientists in Italy provides data from a large pool of people to show that it’s easy to become infected by contact with an infected person, even though the infected person may have no symptoms, and also to show that the greater a person’s age is, the higher is the likelihood of having COVID-19 symptoms. (Seventy-four percent of people under 60 were asymptomatic!)

glossary
PCR-positive – The test for infection is the rapid and convenient PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test. It detects the RNA chromosome of the virus. A PCR-positive result is taken as evidence that the person tested currently has an infection. (But, the test is so sensitive that it can sometimes detect fragments of viral RNA in a recovered patient.)
sero-positive – A positive result in a serology test of a blood sample indicates the presence of antibodies to proteins of COVID-19. The virus does not need to be present for a person to be sero-positive. Such a result indicates that the person is currently infected or was infected in the past.

 

Stay Safe and Healthy!

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New News: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . My New Author Website is Live!

My New Author Website is Live!

by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

I had the website for “Donna O’Donnell Figurski – Author” reformatted. It’s now live. I love it!

To see it, go to donnafigurski.com.

 

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COVID-19 — It’s Everywhere . . . Breakthrough in Basic Research May Defeat COVID-19

Breakthrough in Basic Research May Defeat COVID-19

by

Columbia University Professor Emeritus, Dr. David Figurski

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

 

(Disclaimer: The World Health Organization <WHO> has officially named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes as COVID-19. Because the majority of people, including much of the press, commonly refers to the virus as “COVID-19,” to avoid confusion I use COVID-19 as the name of the virus in these posts.)

David H. Figurski, Ph.D & Survivor of Brain Injury

 

Exciting results indicate that a novel idea might bring COVID-19 under control.  The new technology has been shown to work at the lab bench.  Now scientists are doing animal studies and, later, human studies.

Scientists at Boston University (BU) and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) have made coated nanoparticles that are covered with pieces of lung cell membrane. (About 1000 tiny particles, or “nanoparticles,” can line up in the space equal to the width of a human hair.) The coated nanoparticles mimic the lung cells that normally bind the virus and allow an infection to start.  But, when the virus tries to infect a coated nanoparticle, the virus dies.  Essentially, the coated nanoparticle is a lethal decoy.

Research in the lab indicates that the new technology might be able to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, if the technology works in humans, coated nanoparticles will likely be important for inactivating other viruses and for dealing with future pandemics.

Specific nanoparticles can be made to mimic any cell that any virus infects.  So, coated nanoparticles can be made that are specific for any virus (for example, for influenza virus or for Ebola virus).  Also, once the cell normally infected by a previously unknown virus to start an infection has been identified (as it was for COVID-19), the relevant coated nanoparticles can be made. So, a novel virus can be inactivated even though little is known about the molecular details of its biology.

Scientists were surprised to learn that the coated nanoparticles for COVID-19 bind the SARS-2 coronavirus even better than the lung cells normally infected by the virus.  So, this approach for COVID-19 is likely be very efficient.

In COVID-19 infections, sometimes the immune response is too active and causes severe disease or death.  The dexamethasone breakthrough I wrote about earlier works by dampening the immune response.  The scientists surprisingly found that coating another batch of nanoparticles with membrane pieces from cells of the immune system also dampened the immune response.

The scientists envision a protective coated nanoparticle mixture for COVID-19 that has two types of coated nanoparticles (one that mimics the lung cells that are infected and another that dampens the immune response). The mixture would be simply administered as a nasal spray.

 

Stay Safe and Healthy!

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COVID-19 — It’s Everywhere . . . Drug Breakthrough Significantly Prevents COVID-19 Deaths

Drug Breakthrough Significantly Prevents COVID-19 Deaths

by

Columbia University Professor Emeritus, Dr. David Figurski

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

 

(Disclaimer: The World Health Organization <WHO> has officially named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes as COVID-19. Because the majority of people, including much of the press, commonly refer to the virus as “COVID-19,” to avoid confusion I use COVID-19 as the name of the virus in these posts.)

COVID-19

David H. Figurski, Ph.D & Survivor of Brain Injury

Research at the University of Oxford in England showed for the first time that a drug prevented a major fraction of deaths in severely sick patients with COVID-19.

Dexamethasone was found in a large clinical trial to cause a significant reduction in deaths. It can be prescribed as pills, and it is a common, readily available, and relatively inexpensive drug

A major problem after infection by COVID-19 is that the immune response of some individuals is too aggressive (often causing what’s called a “cytokine storm”) and can lead to death. Because dexamethasone is a steroid that dampens the immune response, the prediction was that it might help to prevent deaths by COVID-19.

The research showed that it does.

There are about 3 deaths for every 8 patients on ventilators.  Dexamethasone treatment reduced those deaths by one-third.  So, 1 death would be prevented for every 8 patients on ventilators.  About 5 deaths occur in every 25 patients on oxygen only. Dexamethasone treatment reduced those deaths by one-fifth, or about 1 less death for every 25 patients on oxygen only. Dexamethasone treatment had no effect on patients not on ventilators or receiving oxygen only.

Given that a major fraction of the over 118,000 deaths in the US so far (at 6:00 pm ET on June 18, 2020) were on ventilators or oxygen only, dexamethasone treatment is predicted to prevent many deaths.

The UK’s Chief Scientific Adviser, Sir Patrick Vallance, said: “This is a ground-breaking development in our fight against the disease, and the speed at which researchers have progressed finding an effective treatment is truly remarkable.”

 

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COVID-19 — It’s Everywhere . . . Progress in Controlling COVID-19

Progress in Controlling COVID-19

by

Columbia University Professor Emeritus, Dr. David Figurski

presented by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

 

(Disclaimer: The World Health Organization <WHO> has officially named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes as COVID-19. Because the majority of people, including much of the press, commonly refer to the virus as “COVID-19,” to avoid confusion I use COVID-19 as the name of the virus in these posts.)

COVID-19

David H. Figurski, Ph.D & Survivor of Brain Injury

 

 

I want to tell you about an amazing podcast, TWiV (This Week in Virology), created and hosted by Dr. Vincent Racaniello, a colleague of mine at Columbia University.

Vincent’s a virologist who has done cutting edge research on the molecular biology of influenza virus, poliovirus, and rhinoviruses (which cause the common cold). His podcasts feature several PhDs in microbiology (virologists, an immunologist, a parasitologist, and a science reporter who earned his PhD with Vincent) discussing the latest research and advances in viruses.

Vincent has been self-quarantining at home. Consequently, since March 13th, he has made more than 30 podcasts, nearly all concerning COVID-19, potential therapies and vaccines, and pandemics. His guests have been infectious disease scientists doing research or physicians in the trenches learning about the clinical manifestations of the virus and how to treat their patients.

Dr. Vincent Racaniello – Columbia University Virologist

Vincent’s podcasts are made for non-scientists to understand, but they are 1-2 hours long. Probably none of you has the time to listen that long. Therefore, I’m trying to listen to them so I can point you to episodes and minutes you may want to hear.

Podcast #622, released June 2, featured Dr. Emmie de Wit of the Rocky Mountain Labs in Montana. She’s a virologist doing drug and vaccine research in monkeys. Because Rocky Mountain Labs is one of the few places in the country with a high-safety-level facility, Dr. de Wit has worked with several dangerous viruses: SARS-1, MERS, pandemic influenza strains, and Ebola. Now she’s working with SARS-2.

I’ve boiled down Episode #622 to four segments totaling ~16 minutes.

  1. 26:05-26:35 – The spike protein of the virus coat initiates infection of a cell by attaching to the ACE2 protein (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) on the cell’s surface. Here Emmie tells how it took only days to identify ACE2 and confirm viral binding. Rich Condit, a virologist, was astonished by the speed. ACE2-binding by spike is a potential drug target.

 

  1. 37:15-39:44 – The PCR test (polymerase chain reaction), simple enough to be done on a large scale, detects the 30,000-nucleotide (or base) RNA chromosome of the virus. But, PCR is so sensitive that it can detect degradation fragments of the RNA, even though the person is no longer contagious. The only way to tell for sure is to detect viable virus in cell culture. This is hard to do and is only done in virology research labs. As a result, a person is considered infected and contagious if the PCR test is positive.

  1. 43:35-54:05 Remdesivir, an antiviral drug, is a nucleotide-analog that blocks the copying of the RNA chromosome to make more virus. Emmie showed that giving remdesivir to monkeys early (at 12-hours post infection) was very effective. But, humans don’t show symptoms for days, and, because remdesivir must be administered intravenously, patients are only given remdesivir if they are hospitalized. This is very late, and still there is a modest effect. Rich Condit talks about the possibility of producing an oral form of the drug. Then remdesivir could be taken earlier – maybe even at home – and might be very effective in humans.

 

  1. 58:25-60:40 This segment concerns a vaccine. (I’ll write more on this topic later, but you should know that there are three types of promising technologies: the viral protein-based, the viral gene-based, and the virus vector-based, in which a harmless virus carries a gene from a disease-producing virus for a protein that’s needed to infect cells.)2ff087415a5009984739aa8fde5d5d4a

Emmie tested a harmless chimpanzee adenovirus that was engineered to carry the COVID-19 spike gene. This adenovirus produces the coronavirus spike protein, needed for COVID-19 to infect cells. So, this harmless adenovirus should cause us to make antibodies that will block infection by COVID-19.

In Emmie’s experiment in monkeys, the vaccine worked so well that it allowed clinical trials to proceed in humans.

Stay Safe and Healthy!

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Past Blast – SPEAK OUT! Survivor Interview … Ann Boriskie

Past Blast!

Survivors SPEAK OUT! Ann Boriskie

presented

by

Donna O’Donnell Figurski

 

Boriskie, Ann Survivor 011116

Ann Boriskie – Survivor: Brain Injury Peer Visitor Association Director

 

1. What is your name? (last name optional)

Ann Boriskie

2. Where do you live? (city and/or state and/or country) Email (optional)

Alpharetta, Georgia, USA (a suburb of Atlanta, Georgia) aboriskie@braininjurypeervisitor.org

3. On what date did you have your brain injury? At what age?

November 12, 1998, at age 48

4. How did your brain injury occur?

My brain injury occurred in a car wreck less than five miles from home. I was headed to a regular dental checkup.

A woman was talking on her phone while driving, and she obviously missed her turn. She stopped suddenly, but I was able to stop my car and not hit her at all. She just sat there at the bottom of a hill on the two-lane road. She did not move. A young student (16 years old) came down the hill. He said he was messing with his radio and just did not see us. He hit my car going 50 mph and pushed my car into the woman’s car.

5. When did you (or someone) first realize you had a problem?

About 48 hours after my wreck, I started having concussion symptoms. I experienced dizziness and mental “fogginess.” I could not walk. There was bruising under my eyes. The toes on my right foot went numb. My left eye was out of focus.

6. What kind of emergency treatment, if any, did you have?

None. I walked away from the wreck thinking I was just fine. After 48 hours, I went to a 24-hour clinic, but they just sent me home. They told me I had no real problems and I would be fine. I also went to an eye doctor right away, but again, I was told there that nothing was wrong physically with my eye. Several months after my wreck, one neurologist told me that I had “post-concussion syndrome” and to go home – that I would be just fine. No one else mentioned my having a brain injury for one year. Then a dental TMJ specialist told me that I had a brain injury. That was what was causing my mental symptoms. (TMJ = temporomandibular joint)Peer Visitation Banner

7. Were you in a coma? If so, how long?

No

8. Did you do rehab? What kind of rehab (i.e., inpatient or outpatient and occupational and/or physical and/or speech and/or other)? How long were you in rehab?

My brain injury went undiagnosed for over a year. The physical therapy that I received was in relation to each of my physical injuries (see #9), especially to help after the surgeries that I had to have to repair the parts of my body that were injured.

9. What problems or disabilities, if any, resulted from your brain injury
(e.g., balance, perception, personality, etc.)?

a. My brain injury caused depression, anxiety, and anger (more so in the first several years). I had lots of memory issues. (I could not remember friends or faces. I got lost. I could not write. Then once I could write, I couldn’t write in cursive – I still can’t.) Some memory issues remain today. I permanently lost many of my past memories. (I can’t remember family events or experiences or places where we had lived. I lost memory of cities and our time there.) I lost a lot of my math skills (I was an A+ math student, and I was in advanced math classes), but I have regained many of these math skills.

b. My neck was injured. (The C4, C5, C6, and C7 vertebrae were knocked out of line.) I had to have neck surgery (for fusion and a metal plate holding these four levels together). My neck is in CONSTANT PAIN.

c. I had an injury to the L5 and S1 levels of my spine. (The last two vertebrae are not attached now to my spinal cord). Surgery was recommended, but my neck did not fuse properly, so I decided not to have back surgery. I am in CONSTANT PAIN in my lower back. The pain often radiates to my hips and legs.

d. I popped a tendon from its bone in my right elbow. (I braced my body on the steering wheel in the wreck.) It required surgery. The doctor said it was one of the worst tears he had ever seen.

e. Permanent nerve damage was created in various body areas.

f. The left part of my jaw was knocked out of line. It literally took years of appliance therapy to get the bone back into its correct place.

g. A valve was torn on the left side of my heart. This caused irregular heartbeats for a while. It repaired itself.

h. My left side remains weaker than my right side.

i. Numbness remains in my hands (which makes it harder to use my hands). I also have numbness in my feet, down my arms, and down my legs.

j. Sometimes my left eye will not focus or work well with my right eye.

k. I have a shorter attention span.

l. All of these physical injuries caused me to have fibromyalgia and constant body pains.

Boriskie, Ann Podium

10. How has your life changed? Is it better? Is it worse?

In the long run, I have to say my life is truly better. All three of our children are in the medical field. (My husband and I have raised one daughter, now a neonatologist who takes care of premature babies and helps the moms; raised a son, now a doctor of internal medicine who works as a hospitalist; and raised another daughter, now a Registered Nurse in a mental-illness hospital unit.)

My priorities changed in my life. I went from being a “work-oholic” and a person who was very competitive to a person who lives to help other people, including my family and friends.

I slowed down my life’s pace. I had to learn that I could no longer work at a full-time outside-the-home job. (For years, I could not work at all.) I also had to learn to take care of myself – due to all of the physical and mental problems that the wreck created.

I was at home, and thus I was “there” more for my children and husband. I was able to give them more help and more attention.

11. What do you miss the most from your pre-brain-injury life?

I miss my higher energy level. I miss many of my memories. I miss all of the physical sports and activities that I can no longer do (water skiing, snow skiing, kayaking, swimming, playing golf, etc.).

12. What do you enjoy most in your post-brain-injury life?Peer Visitor Banner

I enjoy running the Brain Injury Peer Visitor Association and being able to help thousands of brain-injury and stroke survivors throughout the United States and the world. I’ve done this each year since 2006.

13. What do you like least about your brain injury?

I dislike being in constant pain (which also affects my brain). I also dislike having to push myself more and having to work much harder to accomplish my goals and to do my work than I did prior to my wreck.

14. Has anything helped you to accept your brain injury?

  1. Helping other people helps me also.
  2. Sharing my experiences with others and listening to each brain-injury survivor’s problems (This helps me to better understand my own brain injury.)
  3. Attending support-groups (and being very open to sharing my own problems, experiences, successes, and methodologies)
  4. In the past, gaining the help of neuropsychologists
  5. Going to medical doctors who treat brain injury (e.g., a psychiatrist)

15. Has your injury affected your home life and relationships and, if so, how?

Yes. I am much more dedicated to my husband and three children. I treasure our relationships. I also treasure my friendships more. You really better understand that life is way too short and can change in a second.

16. Has your social life been altered or changed and, if so, how?

Yes. I no longer like to be in big crowds or in a noisy environment. Going to a party is now a struggle and sometimes a chore. I just avoid noisy places and huge crowds. This requirement definitely limits the activities in which I can participate.

17. Who is your main caregiver? Do you understand what it takes to be a caregiver?

My wonderful husband is my main caregiver. I am blessed that he “stuck it out” with me and helped me go through all of my physical and mental recoveries. He is also one of my biggest supporters – even financially supporting my association and approving of all of the volunteer hours that I dedicate to the Brain Injury Peer Visitor Association.

Boriskie, Ann Training in Florida Survivor 011116

18. What are your plans? What do you expect/hope to be doing ten years from now?

I plan to continue running the Brain Injury Peer Visitor Association as long as I possibly can. My dream is to continue to grow the association throughout the United States and even internationally.

I also plan to continue to enjoy and spend time with my immediate family and their families.

19. Are you able to provide a helpful hint that may have taken you a long time to learn, but which you wished you had known earlier? If so, please state what it is to potentially help other survivors with your specific kind of brain injury.

Accept your limitations, but continue to “push yourself” to improve. Realize that, even though you are different from the pre-TBI you, you are still a valuable person in the world. Let your “old self” go. Realize that person won’t be back. Embrace the “new you,” and learn to love yourself for who you now are. Remember that YOU CAN. Don’t defeat yourself by focusing on all of the things you can no longer do.

2011 Community Service Awards from WXIA 11

20. What advice would you offer to other brain-injury survivors? Do you have any other comments that you would like to add?

Help others. Get involved. Volunteer. By helping others with a brain injury, you truly help yourself in so many ways. You will help yourself get better, and you will gain confidence.

 

You can hear Ann Boriskie on my radio show, “Another Fork in the Road” at 5:30pm PT (6:30MT, 7:30CT, 8:30ET) on Sunday, January 17th on the Brain Injury Radio Network (BIRN)

Click here on Sunday 5:30pm Pacific Time. Another Fork in the Road: Ann Boriskie – Director of Brain Injury Peer Visitor 

You can call in to listen to the show or talk to the host by dialing this number. 424-243-9540

(Disclaimer: The views or opinions in this post are solely that of the interviewee.)

If you would like to be a part of the SPEAK OUT! project, please go to TBI Survivor Interview Questionnaire for a copy of the questions and the release form.

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